Soil is a key ingredient to successful gardening

Soils & Climate


Soil Texture. This Soil Texture factsheet discusses the four soil texture classifications of sands, silts, loams and clays; how they combine to make textural classifications; how soil texture is determined; and the 5 soil management groups in New York State.

Soil Organic Matter. This Soil Organic Matter factsheet describes types of organic matter in soil; their physical, chemical & biological benefits; farm practices that help maintain or increase soil organic matter levels; and the importance of continued monitoring of soil organic matter content.

The Cornell Soil Health website offers a variety of resources on soil testing and improvement.

Soil Testing. Visit our page on "How to take a soil sample" for testing and see what Soil Testing Services are offered by or through Cooperative Extension. Cornell's Garden Based Learning site also offers information on types of soil tests; suggested tests for lawns, vegetable gardens and fruit crops; testing for contaminants; and healthy soil fact sheets from the Cornell Waste Management Institute.


Cornell University offers numerous resources about climate change including fact sheets and tools to help you better understand the issues.

Gardening Sustainably in an Uncertain Climate highlights what is known with high certainty about climate change and the many things gardeners can do to lead the way in climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Last updated April 28, 2023