close-up photo of soil after tilling

Knowing the pH and nutrient content of your soil is important to successful growing.

Soil Sampling
Image by Cornell University

Testing the pH of your soil will let you know if any amendments are needed for successful gardening

Soil in cupped hands

Learn how to collect a soil sample for testing

How to Take a Soil Sample

1. When should soil be sampled?

Soil samples can be taken at any time during the year; however, avoid extremely wet soil conditions unless absolutely necessary.

2. How often should I have my soil tested?
For most crops, every 2 to 3 years. Soil under intensive cultivation may require annual testing. Sampling from any given area should be done at about the same time as in previous years.

3. What tool shall I use for sampling?
A soil probe or auger is best; if not available, use a garden spade or shovel.
For cultivated crops and gardens, samples are taken to the tillage depth (6-10")
For no till or minimum till, take one sample at 0 - 1" and another at a 1 - 6" depth.

4. What is the proper sampling depth?
For cultivated crops and gardens
, sample at 0 - 1" and another at 1 - 6" depth.
For lawns and pastures
, a sample from the upper 6" is satisfactory; remove plant residue.
For tree and fruit crops, 2 samples should be submitted, one taken at 0 - 8" depth, the other at 8 - 16" (subsoil layer).

5. How do I go about collecting the sample?
With a shovel, dig a hole to the sampling depth. Cut a ½" slice from the face of the hole and trim the sides so you have a vertical slice of soil.

6. How many sub-samples should I collect from each area?
Repeat the sampling process in about 10 - 15 locations throughout the garden or field. Mix the sub-samples in a plastic bucket to obtain a representative composite sample. Avoid sampling in unusual areas if the objective is to estimate average fertility levels over the entire area.

7. What if I have an area of poor crop growth?

If you have a trouble spot, a separate sample taken from this area may be necessary.

8. Should the sample be dry?
Do not bring in wet samples. If it is necessary to sample wet soil, spread the sample on a sheet of newspaper and allow it to dry at room temperature.

9. How much soil is needed for each composite sample?
About two cups are required.

10. Where do I bring samples?
Cooperative Extension Education Center, 479 Route 66, Hudson, NY or the Agraforestry Resource Center, 6055 Route 23, Acra, NY between 8:30 am and 4:30 pm on weekdays. Testing for pH alone is done on-site; You can send nutrient and specialized tests to an area laboratory for an additional fee. For more details on available tests, and to download the forms required for each, please visit our page on "Soil Testing Services".

11. What information needs to accompany the samples?

For cultivated crops (farms and other commercial producers):

Soil name and map symbol from soil survey (available at the Cooperative Extension Education Center)
Tillage depth
Past crops
Future crops to be grown
Cover crops
Manure rates, if applied

For gardeners and homeowners:

Site characteristics
Crop to be grown
Age of crop
Fertilizer used
Manure rates applied

12. How long will it take to get test results?

pH tests are conducted at the Cooperative Extension Education Center and take from 1 - 3 days. Complete nutrient tests take about 1 - 2 weeks. Results are mailed from the lab directly to you, and a copy also is sent to our office.

13. What if I have questions about the results?
Call us at (518) 828-3346 (Hudson) or 518-622-9820 (Acra)

14. How much does the test cost?
pH test - $3.00 per sample
pH testing kits - $30.00 normal range
Payable when the sample is submitted to Conrell Cooperative Extension.

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Last updated May 10, 2023